Do Ley Lines Only Have a Paranormal Explanation?

“Philip Carr-Gomm and Richard Heygate describe the origin of ley lines in their ‘Book of English Magic’: ‘Alfred Watkins, a landscape photographer in Herefordshire, noticed that ancient sites seemed to be aligned with others nearby. His idea was that our ancestors built and used prominent features in the landscape as navigation points. These features included prehistoric standing stones and stone circles, barrows and mounds, hill forts and earthworks, ancient moats, old pre-Reformation churches, old crossroads and fords, prominent hilltops and fragments of old, straight tracks. Watkins went on to suggest that that the lines connecting these ancient sites represented old trackways or routes that were followed in prehistoric times for the purposes of trade or religious rites, and in 1921 he coined the term “ley lines” to describe these alignments.’ “¹

The idea that some sort of land or water structure could represent a “trackway” for prehistoric travel purposes does make sense. Back then, the only navigational tools available would be the position of the stars and any natural or man-made landmarks. Placing these in some sort of a “line” would make travel easier and decrease the chances of getting lost.

Over time ley lines have been a bit redefined as being avenues of intense energy that ancient civilizations knew about and harvested to their advantage. These lines of energy are believed to have electromagnetic properties that ebb and flow as the Earth changes. These energy pathways may be associated with telluric currents:

“Telluric currents are natural electric currents flowing in the Earth’s crust and mantle…. Geophysicists have known for decades there are electrical currents in the earth and that these electrical currents are modified by natural resources which can be resistive (fresh water aquifers, oil, gas. salt, etc.) or conductive (brines; clays; minerals like copper, iron, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and rare earths; Kimberlite Pipes; etc.)”²

Despite any changes in energy, ley lines remain more powerful than the areas that surround them. Furthermore, it is also believed that, when two or more are crossed together, ley lines create a type of energy vortex that many believe increase paranormal activity,

And so this leads to the bigger question – does this phenomenon actually exist or is it just some convoluted idea that really has no foundations in scientific proof? There is plenty of skepticism out there….


Sometimes the human brain can create something that doesn’t actually exist by simply “filling in the blanks.” In the paranormal world a good example of this is when a ghost tour guest or paranormal investigator claims to have seen a ghost in a window. Many times the objects in the room behind the window, the angle of light on its surface or the texture of the screen can make it appear that someone is standing in the window.

The photo on the left is from one of my paranormal investigations of a local crematory. If you look closely you may be able to see shoulders at the bottom of the window with a darker pointed collar above them. A vague head can be seen as well with darker hair flowing off to the right.

Having trouble seeing the figure? Well, that’s the mystery of pareidolia – some can see them, some cannot. And it is this argument that sets skeptics afire. It is claimed that sacred sites only line up exactly if you choose to see it that way. Consider the fact that a quarter-inch line on a map to equate to a fifty-foot line on the ground. That’s a pretty big chunk of real estate to connect together. Consider also that some parts of the world have multiple sites in a concentrated area. As an example, England itself has thousands of locations that are considered ancient or sacred. Anyone with any concept of what a line is could draw ley line connections between any of these sites.

The Origins Of Ley Lines

As was mentioned in the opening quotation, Alfred Watkins, a British photographer, is attributed with coining the term “ley lines.” He noticed that in his travels of taking photos that certain sites seemed to line up in straight trajectories. In his book Early British Trackways, he discusses the implications of what he believes he may have discovered at a lecture given to the Woolhope Naturalists’ Field Club at Hereford – September, 1921. Here he offers up a provable experiment whereby he was able to draw out all of the natural and man-made objects can be linked together in this straight line. He goes further by stating that the concept of a ley line has even evolved in our spoken language:

“The fact of the ley is embedded in the rural mind. A country man in directing your path will invariably bring in the now misleading, but once correct, ‘keep straight on.’ It was once absolutely necessary to ‘keep straight on’ in the ley, for if you did not you would be de-leyed on your journey. This is not said as a pun, but as in some succeeding sentences, to point out the place of the ley in the evolution of our language.”³

For all he did present as possible proof, Watkins always kept himself a bit reserved in  admitting that ley lines absolutely exist.

“My deductions may be faulty. But the facts are physical ones, and anyone can test in their own district whether moats, mounds and churches do not line up in straight lines with a hill peak at one end, and with bits of old tracks and antiquarian objects on the line…. I had no theory when, out of what appeared to be a tangle, I got hold of the one right end of this string of facts, and found to my amazement that it unwound in orderly fashion and complete logical sequence.
Make your own deductions when you have verified….”⁴

Since his time, New Age thinkers have taken his discovery and transformed it into an entire discipline that encompasses feng shui and Gaia – the planetary consciousness of Earth.

What Does Science Say About Ley Lines?

If you search through Google Scholar and other academic resources, you will be hard-pressed to find anything reputable that mentions ley lines. In fact, the disciplines of geology and electromagnetism have nothing or very little to offer. It would seem that science has not been able to use the scientific method to verify the existence of ley lines. But does the search for answers really end here? Let’s consider some things we do know about energy and its impact on humans – both alive and deceased.

In the realm of quantum physics, our understanding of what exactly matter is composed of is slowly changing. Decades ago we understood the basic building blocks of physical objects to be made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Now we understand that matter’s composition may be more about energy than it is about physical stuff. The physical particles themselves consists of swirling vortices of energy that each have their own signature spin. We are slowly discovering new information each day through the Hadron Collider and scientific research, changing our understanding of matter and energy. As an example, quantum entanglement – a term used in quantum theory to describe the way that particles of energy/matter can become correlated to predictably interact with each other regardless of how far apart they are – has redefined the physical laws of energy/particles and their relationships. The unknowns discovered through our pioneering efforts may also play a role in proving the existence of ley lines.

Consider also that the Earth is surrounded by electromagnetic fields. They are what keep our atmosphere protected from solar radiation. These fields are created by the flow of the Earth’s liquid iron core which is whirpooled around by the planet’s spin, or Coriolis force. These electromagnetic fields have a direct impact on life itself – as has been observed in the medical field.

Geopathic Stress

Electromagnetic radiation has both positive and negative effects on humans. We know that adequate sunlight allows plants to grow and humans to produce healthy levels of vitamin D. Transversely, overexposure can have detrimental effects:

“It has been reported that living close to power lines can cause or exacerbate headaches, depression, allergies, anxiety, irritability, and may even lead to fetal difficulties, increased tumor growth or cancer.”⁵

When the Earth’s magnetic field is disturbed in some way, it is known as geopathic stress. These disturbances can be made naturally, like geological faults or underground water – or they can be man-made through power lines, mining, construction of underground transport systems or the building of stone structures. Just as an example – if a hospital is built on top of or near a disturbed site:

“Patients in hospital beds where geopathic stress is a problem are likely to suffer more post operative complications and take longer to get well…geopathic stress can undermine the patient’s energy and sleep patterns thus delaying their recovery.” ⁵

Furthermore, it can be observed within many patient care facilities that Sudden Cardiac Death happens between the hours of 1 a.m. and 5 a.m. Half of all heart disease deaths happen this way. This type of death is attributed to an electrical disruption or arrythmias in the heart. Many of these patients have ventricular or atrial fibrillation, a common diagnosis of racing heartbeats, fluttering, and a feeling of being “off.”

“…sudden cardiac arrest occurs when the electrical system to the heart malfunctions and suddenly becomes very irregular. The heart beats dangerously fast. The ventricles may flutter or quiver (ventricular fibrillation), and blood is not delivered to the body. In the first few minutes, the greatest concern is that blood flow to the brain will be reduced so drastically that a person will lose consciousness. Death follows unless emergency treatment is begun immediately.”⁶

Interestingly enough, as the sun moves across the planet’s surface, the disruptions in its electromagnetic fields are at their greatest. It has been theorized that an increase in SCD may be linked to this massive disruption of electromagnetic fields on the planet as the sun begins to rise.

What Might We Deduce?

If we take all of the information previously mentioned and examine it together, there are many things we do understand about the Earth and its electric currents. We know that its core is responsible for its electromagnetic fields that exist around the planet in distinctly separate circular patterns. We also understand that telluric currents run under the crust and throughout the mantle and that they can be modified by natural and man-made resources. Matter, as we continue to understand it, is quickly becoming a discussion more so of energy than physical stuff. Humans are directly affected by the Earth’s electromagnetic surges and wanes, as in sudden cardiac death.

Is it too far of a stretch to make the link that perhaps the Earth does have lines of concentrated energy that can be harvested, or at least understood? In all of the mysteries of past civilizations, might those peoples have figured out that by erecting sacred sites along these energy lines that an amazing potential would be achieved? Might we be able to say, scientifically, that ley lines do exist?

I leave you with one final quote to mull over in regards to ley lines and the paranormal:

“…most of the Earths leys are positive but when two of these leys cross or intersect a vortex of negative energy is then created. It is like a powerful magnet attracting all kinds of lower vibrational spirit, energy or entity and even sometimes people. These entities can then draw off the energy, feed on it and use it to manifest. Bodmin Jail (Cornwall) is a place where two such energy lines cross and therefore they form lower energy vortexes and this, in turn, will also affect the way people behave in such places. They will be prone or influenced to lower vibrational thoughts, paranoia, anger, ego and fear etc………it can be a source of food to an entity to recharge their essence.”⁷

Works Cited:

Photo courtesy Nicholas Raymond:                                                               


²  H. R. Nelson1 , Les R. Denham2 , and D James Siebert2. “Telluric and Earth Currents, Lightning Strike Locations, and Natural Resource Exploration.” May 12, 2014.

³  Watkins, Alfred. Early British Trackways, Moats, Mounds, Camps and Sites. 1922. pg. 17.

⁴  Ibid.

⁵  Freshwater, Dawn. “Geopathic Stress.” Downloaded from:



The Science of Paranormal Sounds: Explaining Ghostly Footsteps


There are certain phenomena in the paranormal realm that nearly defy any possible explanations. With a residual or intelligent haunting we know that a ghost or entity is either continuously replaying life’s events or they are genuinely interacting with the environment. When EMF detectors spike up from their baseline, we know that a spirit’s energy is manipulating the device. If divining rods move in a specific manner, we know that an entity is pulling them in their direction. Some activity; however, is not so easily explained.

How it is possible for spirits to make knocks or create the sound of footsteps are two phenomena that, so far, have eluded explanation.

This article will offer up a couple possibilities as to how exactly ghosts can create audible footsteps or knock on physical objects. This approach will be taken from a point of view which is as scientific as possible, while still bridging the experiences of the paranormal.

But before we can begin to establish any possible explanations for that sound of soldier boots tramping on the wooden floor over your head, we first should gain an understanding of exactly how the phenomenon of sound works.

Can You Hear Me Now?

In order for an object to make a sound it must either come in contact with another object (such as banging a tuning fork) or be able to create sound from itself (like the vibration of our vocal chords as air passes through them). This sound travels in waves just like water or, in paranormal terms, like electromagnetic fields. Sound is described with the same terms as water waves or EMFs – those being, frequency and amplitude.

Frequency is “the number of times a periodic phenomenon occurs over a unit of time.”¹ When we hear a frequency, the brain interprets the sound as either high or low pitch. The figure below will help you visualize its meaning:


Amplitude is the fluctuation or displacement of a wave from its mean value. With sound waves, it is the extent to which air particles are displaced, and this…sound amplitude is experienced as the loudness of sound.”² The greater the amplitude, the louder the sound will be. The figure below shows that amplitude is the distance between the crest and the median level. The key word with amplitude is loudness.


In order for the human ear to pick up on a sound, it must fall between the frequency range of 20 – 20,000 cycles per second – also known as the unit termed Hertz (Hz). Anything falling below or above this range cannot be detected by our hearing.


When we analyze how it is possible to interpret sounds in our physical world, it’s pretty straightforward. (You might remember this from grade or high school.) The sine waves enter the auditory canal, vibrate the ear drum, and then our brains interpret the sound as it travels through the inner ear. All sounds follow this pattern and with paranormal footsteps or spirit knocks, the process is the same. There are, though, a few things that must be considered.

Could it be possible that the “footsteps” one thinks he or she is hearing might actually be something else? In other words – plumbing pipes rattle,  HVAC systems expand and contract, house lumber creaks, and loose window panes move with the wind. All of these types of noises must be ruled out or debunked. Once all of these factors have been fully considered, only then can we ask the big question:

How in the world can an invisible entity make physical sounds?

As has already been mentioned, there are two types of hauntings – residual and intelligent. In considering how to answer this “big question,” we must treat each one separately. Let’s create a scenario:

Basic Geophone

You are a paranormal investigator and you enter into an old Victorian home. The owners have given you the history of the house and in their narrative they say that a woman in white has been seen on many occasions going down the spiral staircase in the center of the home. She continuously suffered from sleepwalking and nearly every night could be found wandering the confines of the home a couple hours after midnight. You set up a DVR camera at the base of the steps and place a geophone halfway up as well. At 2:18 a.m. the LED lights and sounds on the geophone go off and the DVR camera does capture this mysterious woman coming down the stairs.

How is she able set off your equipment by being only in a spiritual body? The answer may lie in the realm of quantum physics.

The Quirky World of Entanglement

It’s been some time since I have referred back to the second concept that this website was established – entanglement. As a brief reminder of what this term means:

“In short, quantum entanglement means that multiple particles are linked together in a way such that the measurement of one particle’s quantum state determines the possible quantum states of the other particles. This connection isn’t depending on the location of the particles in space. Even if you separate entangled particles by billions of miles, changing one particle will induce a change in the other! Even though quantum entanglement appears to transmit information instantaneously, it doesn’t actually violate the classical speed of light because there’s no “movement” through space.” ³

In our example the lady in white is a spirit that, when alive physically in this world, always walked down the steps at 2 a.m. The owners have informed you that this was a nighttime habit she developed. Because of her repetitious behavior the house itself became physically altered from her consistent energy. The sounds of her footsteps, when she was alive, literally became embedded in the woodwork. Now, in death, her spirit is able to trigger the entangled energy that still lies dormant in the staircase. Simply by walking over the same spots, as she did in life, the lady is able to create the footstep sounds that can in real time now be picked up with a geophone.

2418898852_294e3c38c8_zAnother example, more familiar with paranormal enthusiasts, is that her repetitious behavior left an imprint on the atmosphere. Each night this event is able to play over and over again because her energies have been recorded and play back much like a cassette tape. Perhaps through what might only be explained as possible other dimensions crossing over with ours, can we understand how the footstep sounds can be made. This is simply saying that when another dimension manifests itself in our dimension, the interaction is both visual and auditory. Also what I have found in my research is that the residual energy will eventually run out and the activity will cease at some point.

These possible explanations tackle residual hauntings and may help to explain them. The greater challenge lies in intelligent hauntings, where an entity purposely interacts with paranormal investigators or a homeowner through footsteps or knockings on walls or doors. This type of activity is not residual and may not be fully be explained simply with our theories in quantum entanglement or the crossing of dimensions.

The Mind Is Stronger Than the Body

With an intelligent haunting, a spirit may use a very different approach when the entity wants to execute some sort of a sound. Let’s first consider the Natural Laws of our physical world. Some of these entail the Laws of Thermodynamics or Newton’s Laws of Motion. They may also include Einstein’s theory of light speed or the phenomenon of gravity. There are also basic principles that govern how sound works. No matter which natural law you choose, all of us must abide by them. We have no other choice. Unless, of course, you are a spirit.

There are hundreds of hours of film footage that show spirits can and do pass through physical objects – such as walls, furniture, even people themselves (ever get a sudden unexplained chill down your spine?). Thus it would seem that the physical natural laws do not necessarily apply in the spirit world. And yet, they have to be able to abide by the same physical laws in order for a ghost to make the sound of footsteps or knock on a wall. What may be happening here?

I propose that the answer is simple: intent.

Gamma Brain Waves

shutterstock_134103404“Gamma rays are the most energetic waves in the electromagnetic spectrum. On Earth, nuclear explosions and lightning produce gamma rays.”⁴ These types of rays are not the same as the ones your brain emits, but they are just as amazing. The only similarity they have is that gamma rays in general have an extremely fast frequency with a small amplitude. Their frequency range is from 25 and 100 Hz, with the human brain functioning around 40 Hz.

“They are associated with the ‘feeling of blessings’ reported by experienced meditators such as monks and nuns, and with peak and extremely high levels of cognitive functioning…. Gamma is the brainwave state of being ‘in the Zone,’ that feeling that you can do anything.”⁵

Although gamma brainwaves are a relatively new discovery, scientists have been able to discover that these rays are responsible for neural communication throughout the brain. “[T]he gamma ray originates in the thalamus and moves from the back of the brain to the front and back again 40 times per second!”⁵ They are quickly discovering that these rays may play a very important role in unraveling the mysteries of the brain.

From a paranormal perspective, this phenomenon is deeply fascinating. This function of the brain will still be a consideration because the mind does live on after death. If not, how else would most paranormal activity even occur? That said, the key phrase to ponder here is that gamma rays will give you the feeling that you can do anything. Here is where the “intent” explanation comes into play.

Perhaps a spirit is able to walk through walls, make audible footsteps, knock on doors or even throw objects simply by accessing the gamma rays of the mind. It is an act of sheer will combined with an understanding of all the natural laws, both physical and spiritual. Through the use of gamma brainwaves a spirit is able to initiate any of the natural laws and make ghostly footsteps as they wish. I further support this evidence with the fact that ghosts in general move silently and so something has to be different for the footsteps to be audible. Once again: intent.

Final Thoughts

Presented in this article are a few ideas of how paranormal phenomena like ghostly footsteps and knocks on walls or doors might be explained through the lens of scientific reasoning.

multiverseAs has already been mentioned, there are different dimensions that may cross over with ours. As an example, there have been reports in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania that in the basement of the Pennsylvania Hall a surgical scene was caught when two administrators accidentally took the elevator down one level too far:

“The women were terrified watching the doctors at work, performing meatball surgery on their patients – and watching the growing pile of amputated limbs stacked up in the corner. The scene was completely silent, but when one of the blood-soaked doctors approached them, they hit every button on the elevator and escaped.”

(You can read my entire article here:

Here is where the concept of the multiverse manifests itself, as it has been presented by the quantum theory pioneer Erwin Schrödinger in 1952. In a multiverse there are layers of existence which overlap one another, each layer representing in a different time plane. Events in the past may cross over with present-moment events, creating a kind of multi-layered environment. Perhaps the footsteps created in one time period can become manifested in another time period through the multiverse theory.

With an intelligent haunting, the explanations become a little more complex. Gamma brainwave activity may have some promise in the possibility of explaining how ghosts do what they do. Here in our more scientific world we know that one “of the most remarkable properties of the gamma state is the processing speed: the brain is able to process incredible amounts of information very quickly, remember it, and retrieve that memory later.” There is a fantastic power with this brain function which might also help us better understand the spirit world that lies just on the other side….


Works Cited:

¹ Source: Boundless. “Frequency of Sound Waves.” Boundless Physics. Boundless, 12 Sep. 2016. Retrieved 19 Oct. 2016 from




Magnetotactic Bacteria and Limestone


What exactly are magnetotactic bacteria and why would they have anything to do with the paranormal?

“Magnetosomes (or magnetofossils when found in the sedimentary record) are submicron crystals of magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) that grow intercellularly, forming chains, within magnetotactic bacteria to assist them in navigation within aquatic environments. [They] are important in Earth science because they have ideal sizes for recording stable paleomagnetic signals.”¹

Translation: These bacteria incorporate iron into their bodies to travel through water using electromagnetic fields as guides. MTB (the short abbreviation for them) make up a huge part of our oceans and lakes throughout the world. While alive, they are responsible for stable magnetic iron compositions in sediment layers. While dead, they contribute strongly to a rock’s magnetic capabilities – especially limestone.

“[B]iogenic magnetite, formed by magnetotactic bacteria and/or other magnetite-precipitating organisms, is responsible for much of the stable magnetic remanence in many marine sediments and sedimentary rocks…. The ability of sediments to record accurately the geomagnetic field depends on the constant influx of suitable magnetic carriers….”²

Translation: The functions of this bacteria are largely responsible for limestone’s ability to record electromagnetic fields. The strength of these fields is dependent on the concentration of MTB in the sediments. This is very important in understanding how much energy is available for spirits to extract from a limestone environment.

¹ Larrasoaña, Juan C., et. al. “Paleomagnetic and Paleoenvironmental Implications of Magnetofossil Occurences in Late Miocene Marine Sediments from Guadalquivir Basin, SW Spain.” Frontiers in Microbiology. March 2014. Vol. 5. Article 71. Pg. 1.

² Chang, Shih-Bin Robin and Kirschvink, Joseph Lynn. “Magnetofossils, the Magnetization of Sediments, and the Evolution of Magnetite Mineralization.” Annual Review Earth Planet, Science. 1989. Vol. 17. Pgs. 169, 179.

Copyright © Timothy Yohe, All Rights Reserved.

Thank You for Dropping In!

I appreciate you taking a peek at the new site currently under development. On December 31, 2013 I launched Paranormal Insights and since then have created a growing audience with some very unique perspectives. On October 7, 2015 I self-published my first book entitled Limestone and Its Paranormal Properties: A Comprehensive Approach to the Possibilities. This past Sunday I graduated with an Honors Degree in Education, strongly focused on Science. All of these endeavors have led to this current project.


As I am not a professional web designer, you will see small changes happening over the next few weeks. The goal of this site is summed up in the tagline you see in the above banner:

 “Seeking Scientific Closure for Paranormal Phenomena”

I encourage you to reach out to me through the contact page about any communications or experiences you may have had with the paranormal. Specific areas of interest are geology, quantum physics, pregnancy and the paranormal, and experiences in tuberculosis sanatoriums. I look forward to hearing from you and our journey into the future….